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  • Adding 2 Cycle Oil To Diesel Fuel

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    I've been adding two-cycle oil to my diesel fuel for about 110,000+ miles. So far, I've found outthat it has improved a few things like engine noise is reduced; fuel mileage increased, andknowing the fuel system is being lubricated is always a plus!

    I've been adding 128:1 ratio every time I fill up with fuel. So if I pump 20-25 gallons, I'll add a20-25 ounces of two-cycle oil It makes it 128:1 ratio of fuel to two-cycle oil This is relatively lowratio and with not cause any harm engine as far as I have known.

    There is another reason why I'm adding two-cycle oil to my fuel. It because of EPA changingthe sulfur levels in the diesel fuel. This will reduce the lubricity. Knowing that Bosch VP44injection pumps are a touchy subject you might as well add oil to the fuel.

    More Information on ULSD...

    First, I want to concentrate on the loss of the sulfur and why this is important to you. Sulfur isan Extreme Pressure (EP) lubricant. It is regularly added to lubricating oils and greases toincrease the lubricity and to raise the amount of pressure that the lubricant can handle beforethe lubricating molecular barrier begins to break down. Sulfur has always been a vitallyimportant factor in providing lubrication to fuel injection pump, fuel injectors, and to lesserdegree engine valves.

    The reduction now being made takes on-highway diesel from less than 500 ppm to fewer than15 ppm, which for all practical purposes eliminates sulfur as a lubricant in the fuel.

    Sulfur is a...

    Extreme pressure additive. Applications under extreme pressure conditions rely on additives.Lubricants containing additives that protect against extreme pressure are called EP lubricants,and oils containing additives to protect against extreme pressure are classified as EP oils. EPlubrication is provided by a number of chemical compounds. The most common are compoundsof boron, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, or combinations of these. The compounds are activatedby the higher temperature resulting from extreme pressure, not by the pressure itself. As thetemperature rises, EP molecules become reactive and release derivatives of phosphorus,chlorine, or sulfur (depending on which compound is used) to react with only the exposed metalsurfaces to form a new compound such as iron chloride or iron sulfide. The new compoundforms a solid protective coating that fills the asperities on the exposed metal. Thus, theprotection is deposited at exactly the sites where it is needed. AW agents in the EP oilcontinue to provide anti wear protection at sites where wear and temperature are not highenough to activate the EP agents.

    Unusually heavy loading will cause the fuel temperature to increase beyond the effective rangeof the anti wear protection. When the load limit is exceeded, the pressure becomes too greatand asperities make contact with greater force. Instead of sliding, asperities along the wearsurfaces experience shearing, removing the lubricant and the oxide coating. Under theseconditions, the coefficient of friction is greatly increased and the temperature rises to adamaging level.

    Testing Fuels Lubricity

    There are several methods of determining lubricity in fuels. The most common are: Ball on Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator (BOCLE), Scuffing Load on Ball Lubricity Evaluator (SLBOCLE), and High Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR). The HFRR has emerged as the world standard and has been adopted by the ASTM and all of the engine manufacturers as the de-facto standard for measuring lubricity of fuels. HFRR ratings are counter-intuitive with the lower number showing better lubricity than a higher number.

    On an HFRR test the number given is a measurement of the scar diameter (microns) produced during the test. The larger the scar diameter, the lower the lubricity, the smaller the scar the better the lubricity

    Here is a few ASTM HFRR Standards...


    Product Sulfur Percentage Sulfur ppm HFRR Rating
    High Sulfur Diesel #2 0.5 - 2% 5,000 - 20,000 ppm 300-390 HFRR
    Low Sulfur Diesel #2 0.05% 500 ppm 350-500 HFRR
    Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel #2 0.0015% 15 ppm 520 HFRR
    Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel #1 0.0015% 15 ppm 520 HFRR

    In the matter of Lubricity the ASTM after many years of discussion, has set its standard at HFRR 520 for diesel fuel as a minimum.

    Amount of lubricant in diesel fuel at 1 Gallon and 35 Gallons of ULSD diesel fuel.


    Product Sulfur Percentage Quantity Of Lubricant (35 Gallons) Quantity of Lubricant (1 Gallon)
    High Sulfur Diesel #2 0.5 - 2% 22.4 - 89.6 Ounces 0.64 - 2.56 Ounces
    Low Sulfur Diesel #2 0.05% 2.24 Ounces 0.064 Ounces
    Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel #2 0.0015% 0.0672 Ounces 0.00192 Ounces
    Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel #1 0.0015% 0.0672 Ounces 0.00192 Ounces

    When you look at it from this stand point the amount of lubricants have been reduced to next to nothing.


    Updated: Jan 03 2007

    I'm still researching products and more researching I do the further I keep finding that dieselsadditive are using mineral spirits, xylene, naphtha as an anti-gel and/or cetane booster.However, remember these chemicals are NOT lubricants. I'm also finding that some of thechemicals that they are using in fuel conditioners are cancer causing and have high healthhazards. Like I told one user on Cummins Forum, I've got a whole gallon of Xylene in the shopfor paint thinner, but I won't add that to my diesel fuel!

    We are trying to find additives to add to our fuel that contains lubricants and not thinners. Withthe HFRR score set on ULSD and lack of lubricants it has the last thing your injection pumpwants is more thinners. The whole idea is to put more lubricants in the fuel. I got to admit allthe above chemicals would break down the waxy chains of diesel fuel and improve the pourpoint. However, It comes with a price of enhanced wear on your fuel system. So far, I haven'tfound any kind of product that is like 2 cycle oil for properties.

    Mix ratio for 2 cycle Oil

    The easiest way to remember the mix ratio for two-cycle oil for your truck is 1 ounce of oil forevery gallon of fuel. So basically if you put 20 gallons of fuel in you need 20 ounces of oil. Thiswill work out to about 128:1 ratio, which is very safe to use! This is just for information purpose.

    Cummins authorize up to 5% of WEO (waste engine oil) to be blended into diesel fuel. Knowingthis now you can add up to 1.75 gallons of two-cycle oil in a 35-gallon tank. However, I wouldonly stick to using two-cycle oil and mixing 1 oz of oil to 1 gallon of fuel...

    Update! How is Diesel Fuel Transported and Handled - April 18, 2007

    I found some interesting document about the way that diesel fuel is shipped and I'm going to share these document with you...

    http://www.arb.ca.gov/regact/dieslub/notice.pdf <- Some information on how diesel fuel is now shipped.

    http://www.arb.ca.gov/regact/dieslub/hor.pdf <- More on how diesel fuel is handled.

    http://www.ncagr.com/standard/diesellubricityenforcementpolicyletter11504.pdf <- How North Carolina is handling diesel fuel.

    Basically, diesel fuel after being refined is well above the 520 HFRR rating which isunacceptable by any standards. So it's up to the delivery personnel to add the lubricantpackage to the truck before delivery. Currently, I cannot find anything that insures that saiddelivery of diesel fuel will comply with the HFRR 520 limits. As far I see there is no test of thefuel after its loaded on the truck to ensure it is within compliance or if the additive package waseven added.

    Like North Carolina is saying, "It is our understanding that currently 40% to 60% of the diesel
    fuel supply meets the new standard without the addition of a lubricity additive." Now how are weas consumers to be sure that the lubricant package was used when it's needed? I'm sure thedelivery personnel are not testing every truck load of diesel before it delivered to your local fuelstation.


    Ultra Low Sulfur #2 Diesel by law cannot contain more than .0015% (15 ppm) of sulfur. This fuel will generally have an HFRR rating of 600-800.

    Ultra Low Sulfur #1 Diesel by law cannot contain more than .0015% (15 ppm) of sulfur. This fuel will generally have an HFRR rating of 700-900.

    Remember: 1000 Microns = 0.039369999999999995 Inch

    As you can see above raw untreated USLD diesel is well outside the range of the 520 HFRR limit. It requires a additive package. But once again the is no regulation that insure that package was added to the truck in proper quantity for that load.

    Now saying this... I know there isn't a single diesel additive product on the market today that can promise to improve the diesel fuel lubricity below 520 HFRR level! Especially if its untreated diesel fuel with a HFRR value of 700-900!!! Just something to think about when you buying a fuel additive. But I know that 2 cycle oil is reducing that number for sure!

    Update! Winter Time Performance of 2 Cycle Oil - April 30, 2007

    For starters my lowest temperature around here was recorded at -20.2*F (-29*C) on January 16, 2007 in New Meadows, Idaho. This was recorded by my on-board thermometer which hold histories of HI and LO temps for both inside and out. During this entire season I never use a single anti-gel product on the market. Just diesel fuel and 2 cycle oil.

    Now remember above in the specs sheet for ULSD the gel point is 0*F.


    Now think about it. A snowmobile runs on a mixture of about 40:1 to 50:1 gasoline and 2 cycle oil. This very same snowmobile must run in extreme temperatures down as low as -40*F (40*C) and maybe lower. But what I want to point out here is...

    1. There is no problem with 2 cycle oil gelling up in a snowmobile in extreme temperatures as low as -40*F (-40*C)
    2. With mixtures as low as 40:1 a high performance snowmobile runs great. There is no reason why a 128:1 mixture in you diesel truck would lose performance to that mixture.
    3. Knowing that 2 cycle oil is lubricating your entire system compared to using a harsh solvent (that thins the lubricants) to breakdown the wax of diesel to keep the fuel flowing.
    4. Remember that very same snowmobile has no other lubrication system on board only the 2 cycle oil in the fuel to lube the entire engine. So it a prefect lubricant for your fuel system on your diesel truck.

    As you can see I've go no loss of power or economy with the use of 2 cycle oil. All I got is high points! Think about it most people see a decrease in fuel mileage during the winter time. I'm not seeing much of a decrease this winter between the Edge Comp and the 2 Cycle Oil used in my fuel.

    As for IP and LP pumps. I'm currently got 43K miles on my Bosch VP44 injection pump with no problems so far. Then I got 10K miles on my current carter Campaign pump. Which still got 11-12 @ WOT yet!

    Update! Using 2 Cycle Oil in ULSD Designed Trucks (2007+ Diesel Vehicles) - April 30, 2007

    I would highly suggest that no one uses 2 cycle oil in a vehicle that is already designed for ULSD. These engines have some very expensive equipment on board like diesel particulate filters etc. These device are not cheap to replace. Also remember this might or will VOID your warranty on your truck. These engine have been redesigned to be run on fuel that are very low in lubricants (Sulfur content).

    UPDATE! May 19, 2007- 2 Cycle Oil And The DynoJet...

    Well there has been a lot of talk about 2 cycle oil hurting to HP/TQ numbers. Well I'm here to set the records straight for once and for all...

    First off let me lay down some baseline information. You all have seen my web page on my BOMBs and MODs I've done. Ok... We all know that the 2002 Cummins SO is rated for 235 HP 460TQ at the flywheel.

    Run #1 - Stock mode with Edge Comp Turned off.
    228 HP - 462 TQ

    Well this proves there is very little drag between the flywheel to the rear end. Also this proves there was very little improvement in HP/TQ number concerning 2 cycle oil. I'm using conventional Dino lubes in everything except the transmission which requires the Castrol SynTorque. But still even this number is high for HP/TQ at the rear wheels... 2 Cycle oil maybe???

    Run #2 - Edge Comp turned on 5x5
    379 HP - 831 TQ

    Run #3 - Edge Comp turned on 5x5
    381 HP - 826 TQ

    Ok we all know the Edge Comp give about 120 HP on 5x5 setting but now do the math. 381 - 228 = 153 - 120 = 33 HP difference! Where did this power come from? I got no other fueling enhancements and only a BHAF and straight piped exhaust 3"... Stock injectors, stock turbo, stock Bosch VP44 injection pump and lift pumps.

    As for my fuel / 2 cycle oil ratio he is what I had. I filled up with 26.306 gallons of diesel fuel and poured in 32 ounces of 2 cycle oil (SuperTech Outboard). So that means...

    26.306 (Gallons) x 128 = 3,367.168 Ounces of fuel.

    3,367.168 / 32 Ounces Of Oil = 105.224:1 Ratio of diesel Fuel to Oil.

    I admit this is a bit heavy mixture of 2 cycle oil to fuel. But I've been getting a bit lazy about measuring my oil so if I'm nearly empty I would add the full quart regardless.

    It's got to be the 2 cycle oil helping the burn of the fuel.. So never the less I'm a extremely happy camper and will continue to use 2 cycle oil in my fuel.

    Is 2 Cycle Oil Safe For My Cummins?

    Yes. Two cycle oil is safe for all Dodge Cummins engines from 989 to 2006. This concept wasdesign around the Bosch VP44 injection pump but works fine with Bosch VE Injection pumps,Bosch P700 Injection pumps, Bosch VP44 Injection pumps, and Bosch Common Rail fuelinjection. However, it is not safe to use two-cycle oil in any vehicle with a DPF or EGR system.As for my own truck, I'm at 8K miles on the clock on Feb 25th 2011, and my injection pumphas 3K miles at this time still doing great and producing plenty of power and good MPGs aswell.

    Will 2 Cycle Oil Plug Up My Fuel System?

    In a simple answer, No. Two cycle oil will mix with normal #2 diesels and stay mixed. It will notseparate nor plug up filters or injectors. Here is a single injector after 80K miles in my truck withsolely two-cycle oil no other additives or injector cleaners. The rest of them looked the same.


    Then here is what WEO/WMO or ATF looks like after a short period. (From another Cummins owner) Can you just imagine what the combustion chamber looks like?



    What's Wrong With Using ATF In The Fuel?

    ATF from the 1970s was nothing more than red dyed hydraulic oil. That's it.

    Today's ATF has so many additives, like friction modifiers, anti-scorching compounds, etc.These compounds are designed to retard burning of the ATF in your transmission so why wouldyou think it would burn good as a fuel? Then the other side of the coin like looking at thepictures above the ash level in ATF is high and will leave deposits on your injectors like abovethis will cause performance issues later in life for the engine. The other problem is ATF is redso after adding to your fuel you now got a tank of red dye untaxed off-road diesel, and youmight have a tough explaining away the ATF fluid to a DOT inspector.

    What's Wrong With Using Waste Engine Oil In The Fuel?

    If you got over to the HFRR testing of the fuel additive, you'll find the results of running wasteengine oil was rather poor. Then the other problem of all the debris that is in the waste engineoil. A normal oil filter filters down to 20-30 micron range, which is not good for the VP44injection pumps or Common Rail Injectors. Both fuel system need fuels that are very clean inthe range of 10 microns or less. Like the ATF, the ash content is off the scale as well.

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